This is an idea about how intelligence could emerge from simple biological patterns. If confirmed, this could have direct impact about how we understand the human brain and how we can design new Artificial Intelligence systems.
There is now a wide spread belief that human brain intelligence is based on very simple structures (neurons) that can implement various thinking processes, based on location and structure. This belief is sustained by researches that shows how brain can learn to perceive with regions that were not initially related to that sensing type (like "seeing with your tongue"). This is the approach taken by various researches that are trying to reproduce human-like brain processes (like recognizing objects) with general purpose neural networks.